Bone Fixator
Anatomy of long bone.

Anatomy of the long bone (1/2)

Human skeletal system consists of bones, Figure 1. Bone is partly organic (cells and matrix) and partly inorganic (mineralised component). There are four types of bones: long, short, flat and irregular. Long bones, especially the femur and tibia, are subjected to most of the load during daily activities and they are crucial for skeletal mobility.

Human skeleton and anatomy of the long bone. Click to enlarge.
Figure 1. Skeleton and long bone definitions.

Long bones have four main functions. The first function is structural. Bones provide the shape for our bodies and host vital organs. Body locomotion is the second function of the bone. The complicated kinematic skeletal system enables movement, using muscles that control bone positions and orientations. Bones transmit loads and act as levers. Joints are the fulcrums about which bones move. Therefore, the prime qualities of bones are strength and rigidity [1]. Once the load exceeds the capacity of the bone, the fracture occurs. The body then initiates bone repair and the reconstruction process in order to restore bone functional properties. Details of the healing types and stages are described in the next section of this website. The third function of the bone is blood cell formation. Blood cell precursor cells, hemocytoblasts, are found in red marrow. The red marrow is simply a loose connective tissue that contains these blood cell precursors and the cells that they are making. The fourth function of the bone is inorganic salt regulation and storage of calcium, phosphate, sodium and... continue reading on the next page...