Bone Fixator
Bone Cell Formation. Ref: http://www.scienceinpublic.com

Long Bone Fractures and Healing (1/3)

The remarkable property of bone healing is that the fracture is united, sometimes without a scar, and the bone is reconstructed [1]. Kenneth and Koval [2] outlined the following six stages of bone fracture healing, Figure 1.

Stages of long bone healing. Click to enlarge.
Figure 1. Stages of long bone healing.

The first stage is the impact when the bone absorbs enough energy for a bone tissue failure to be introduced. The energy level required to induce the bone failure is related to the volume of the bone and the rate of loading. The fractures formed can be classified based on the location and the pattern, Figure 2. Peri-articular fractures are located at the metaphysis or epiphysis of the bone. Those fractures are known as complex to stabilise due to restricted space available for fixation at bone ends. Fractures at the diaphysis are referred to as midshaft fractures. Based on pattern, fractures can be classified into transverse, oblique, spiral, comminuted and segmental.

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