Bone Fixator
Colorized scanning electron micrograph shows bone cells attaching to a new type of bone cement made of calcium phosphate. Credit: H.Xu/American Dental Association Foundation.

Factors Influencing Successful Fracture Healing (3/3)

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References

1. Kenwright J and Goodship AE. Controlled mechanical stimulation in the treatment of tibial fractures. Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research, 1989(241): p. 36-47.

2. Wolf JW, White AA, Panjabi MM, and Southwick WO. Comparison of cyclic loading versus constant compression in the treatment of long-bone fractures in rabbits. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery - American Volume, 1981. 63(5): p. 805-810.

3. Wolf S, Janousek A, Pfeil J, Veith W, Haas F, Duda G, and Claes L. The effects of external mechanical stimulation on the healing of diaphyseal osteotomies fixed by flexible external fixation. Clinical Biomechanics, 1998. 13(4-5): p. 359-364.

4. Goodship AE and Kenwright J. The influence of induced micromovement upon the healing of experimental tibial fractures. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery - British Volume, 1985. 67(4): p. 650-5.

5. Ilizarov GA. The tension-stress effect on the genesis and growth of tissues: Part II. The influence of the rate and frequency of distraction. Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research, 1989(239): p. 263-85.

6. Ilizarov GA. The tension-stress effect on the genesis and growth of tissues. Part I. The influence of stability of fixation and soft-tissue preservation. Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research, 1989(238): p. 249-81.

7. Waanders NA, Richards M, Steen H, Kuhn JL, Goldstein SA, and Goulet JA. Evaluation of the mechanical environment during distraction osteogenesis. Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research, 1998(349): p. 225-34.

8. Claes LE, Heigele CA, Neidlinger-Wilke C, Kaspar D, Seidl W, Margevicius KJ, and Augat P. Effects of mechanical factors on the fracture healing process. Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research, 1998(355 Suppl): p. S132-47.

9. O'Doherty DM, Butler SP, and Goodship AE. Stress protection due to external fixation. Journal of Biomechanics, 1995. 28(5): p. 575-586.

10. Sarmiento A, Schaeffer JF, Beckerman L, Latta LL, and Enis JE. Fracture healing in rat femora as affected by functional weight-bearing. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery - American Volume, 1977. 59(3): p. 369-75.

11. Ilizarov GA. Clinical application of the tension-stress effect for limb lengthening. Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research, 1990(250): p. 8-26.

12. Richards M, Goulet JA, Weiss JA, Waanders NA, Schaffler MB, and Goldstein SA. Bone regeneration and fracture healing. Experience with distraction osteogenesis model. Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research, 1998(355 Suppl): p. S191-204.

13. Kenwright J and Gardner T. Mechanical influences on tibial fracture healing. Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research, 1998(355 Suppl): p. S179-90.

14. Noordeen MHH, Lavy CBD, Shergill NS, Tuite JD, and Jackson AM. Cyclical Micromovement and Fracture Healing. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery - British Volume., 1995. 77(4): p. 645-648.

15. McKellop H, Hoffmann R, Sarmiento A, and Ebramzadeh E. Control of motion of tibial fractures with use of a functional brace or an external fixator. A study of cadavera with use of a magnetic motion sensor. Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery - American Volume, 1993. 75(7): p. 1019-25.

16. Perren SM and Cordey J. The concept of interfragmentary strain. In: Uhthoff, H.K. (Ed.), Current Concepts of Internal Fixation of Fractures, 1980: p. Springer, Berlin, pp. 63-77.

17. Gardner TN, Evans M, and Simpson H. Temporal variation of applied inter fragmentary displacement at a bone fracture in harmony with maturation of the fracture callus. Medical Engineering & Physics, 1998. 20(6): p. 480-484.

18. Perren SM. Physical and biological aspects of fracture healing with special reference to internal fixation. Clinical Orthopaedics & Related Research, 1979(138): p. 175-96.

19. Evans FG. Stress and strain in bones. 1957, Springfield: Thomas.

20. Yamada H. Strength of biological materials. 1970, Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.

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